Allie Loves Absinthe

Allie. 23. F. Taken. Intellectual whore, knowledge deprived, and curious to the bones. Loves absinthe. I like girls and so what?

fuckyeahawesomehouses:

House G, Netherlands

(Source: desiretoinspire.net)

neurosciencenews:

People More Influenced by Self Interest
Read the full article People More Influenced by Self Interest at NeuroscienceNews.com.
Strongly influenced by their self-interest, humans do not protest being overcompensated, even when there are no consequences, researchers in Georgia State University’s Brains and Behavior Program have found.
The research is in Brain Connectivity. (full access paywall)
Research: “The Neural Basis of Perceived Unfairness in Economic Exchanges” by Mr. Bidhan Lamichhane, Mr. Bhim Mani Adhikari, Dr. Sarah F Brosnan, and Dr. Mukesh Dhamala in Brain Connectivity. doi:10.1089/brain.2014.0243
Image: The study helped researchers gain new insights into the functional role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and related networks of brain regions for advantageous inequity and protest. This image is for illustrative purposes only. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is labeled and highlighted pink in this brain image. Credit Natalie M. Zahr, Ph.D./Edith V. Sullivan, Ph.D/NIH.

neurosciencenews:

People More Influenced by Self Interest

Read the full article People More Influenced by Self Interest at NeuroscienceNews.com.

Strongly influenced by their self-interest, humans do not protest being overcompensated, even when there are no consequences, researchers in Georgia State University’s Brains and Behavior Program have found.

The research is in Brain Connectivity. (full access paywall)

Research: “The Neural Basis of Perceived Unfairness in Economic Exchanges” by Mr. Bidhan Lamichhane, Mr. Bhim Mani Adhikari, Dr. Sarah F Brosnan, and Dr. Mukesh Dhamala in Brain Connectivity. doi:10.1089/brain.2014.0243

Image: The study helped researchers gain new insights into the functional role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and related networks of brain regions for advantageous inequity and protest. This image is for illustrative purposes only. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is labeled and highlighted pink in this brain image. Credit Natalie M. Zahr, Ph.D./Edith V. Sullivan, Ph.D/NIH.

(Source: Africant, via gotodisneyandbeyond)

neurosciencestuff:

(Image caption: This is the happiness equation, where t is the trial number, w0 is a constant term, other weights w capture the influence of different event types, 0 ≤ γ ≤ 1 is a forgetting factor that makes events in more recent trials more influential than those in earlier trials, CRj is the CR if chosen instead of a gamble on trial j, EVj is the EV of a gamble (average reward for the gamble) if chosen on trial j, and RPEj is the RPE on trial j contingent on choice of the gamble. The RPE is equal to the reward received minus the expectation in that trial EVj. If the CR was chosen, then EVj = 0 and RPEj = 0; if the gamble was chosen, then CRj = 0. The variables in the equation are quantities that the neuromodulator dopamine has been associated with in previous neuroscience studies. Credit: Robb Rutledge, UCL)
Equation to predict happiness
The happiness of over 18,000 people worldwide has been predicted by a mathematical equation developed by researchers at UCL, with results showing that moment-to-moment happiness reflects not just how well things are going, but whether things are going better than expected.
The new equation accurately predicts exactly how happy people will say they are from moment to moment based on recent events, such as the rewards they receive and the expectations they have during a decision-making task. Scientists found that overall wealth accumulated during the experiment was not a good predictor of happiness. Instead, moment-to-moment happiness depended on the recent history of rewards and expectations. These expectations depended, for example, on whether the available options could lead to good or bad outcomes.
The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, investigated the relationship between happiness and reward, and the neural processes that lead to feelings that are central to our conscious experience, such as happiness. Before now, it was known that life events affect an individual’s happiness but not exactly how happy people will be from moment to moment as they make decisions and receive outcomes resulting from those decisions, something the new equation can predict.
Scientists believe that quantifying subjective states mathematically could help doctors better understand mood disorders, by seeing how self-reported feelings fluctuate in response to events like small wins and losses in a smartphone game. A better understanding of how mood is determined by life events and circumstances, and how that differs in people suffering from mood disorders, will hopefully lead to more effective treatments.
Research examining how and why happiness changes from moment to moment in individuals could also assist governments who deploy population measures of wellbeing to inform policy, by providing quantitative insight into what the collected information means. This is especially relevant to the UK following the launch of the National Wellbeing Programme in 2010 and subsequent annual reports by the Office for National Statistics on ‘Measuring National Wellbeing’.
For the study, 26 subjects completed a decision-making task in which their choices led to monetary gains and losses, and they were repeatedly asked to answer the question ‘how happy are you right now?’. The participant’s neural activity was also measured during the task using functional MRI and from these data, scientists built a computational model in which self-reported happiness was related to recent rewards and expectations. The model was then tested on 18,420 participants in the game ‘What makes me happy?’ in a smartphone app developed at UCL called 'The Great Brain Experiment'. Scientists were surprised to find that the same equation could be used to predict how happy subjects would be while they played the smartphone game, even though subjects could win only points and not money.
Lead author of the study, Dr Robb Rutledge (UCL Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging and the new Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing), said: “We expected to see that recent rewards would affect moment-to-moment happiness but were surprised to find just how important expectations are in determining happiness. In real-world situations, the rewards associated with life decisions such as starting a new job or getting married are often not realised for a long time, and our results suggest expectations related to these decisions, good and bad, have a big effect on happiness.
"Life is full of expectations - it would be difficult to make good decisions without knowing, for example, which restaurant you like better. It is often said that you will be happier if your expectations are lower. We find that there is some truth to this: lower expectations make it more likely that an outcome will exceed those expectations and have a positive impact on happiness. However, expectations also affect happiness even before we learn the outcome of a decision. If you have plans to meet a friend at your favourite restaurant, those positive expectations may increase your happiness as soon as you make the plan. The new equation captures these different effects of expectations and allows happiness to be predicted based on the combined effects of many past events.
"It’s great that the data from the large and varied population using The Great Brain Experiment smartphone app shows that the same happiness equation applies to thousands people worldwide playing our game, as with our much smaller laboratory-based experiments which demonstrate the tremendous value of this approach for studying human well-being on a large scale."
The team used functional MRI to demonstrate that neural signals during decisions and outcomes in the task in an area of the brain called the striatum can be used to predict changes in moment-to-moment happiness. The striatum has a lot of connections with dopamine neurons, and signals in this brain area are thought to depend at least partially on dopamine. These results raise the possibility that dopamine may play a role in determining happiness.

neurosciencestuff:

(Image caption: This is the happiness equation, where t is the trial number, w0 is a constant term, other weights w capture the influence of different event types, 0 ≤ γ ≤ 1 is a forgetting factor that makes events in more recent trials more influential than those in earlier trials, CRj is the CR if chosen instead of a gamble on trial j, EVj is the EV of a gamble (average reward for the gamble) if chosen on trial j, and RPEj is the RPE on trial j contingent on choice of the gamble. The RPE is equal to the reward received minus the expectation in that trial EVj. If the CR was chosen, then EVj = 0 and RPEj = 0; if the gamble was chosen, then CRj = 0. The variables in the equation are quantities that the neuromodulator dopamine has been associated with in previous neuroscience studies. Credit: Robb Rutledge, UCL)

Equation to predict happiness

The happiness of over 18,000 people worldwide has been predicted by a mathematical equation developed by researchers at UCL, with results showing that moment-to-moment happiness reflects not just how well things are going, but whether things are going better than expected.

The new equation accurately predicts exactly how happy people will say they are from moment to moment based on recent events, such as the rewards they receive and the expectations they have during a decision-making task. Scientists found that overall wealth accumulated during the experiment was not a good predictor of happiness. Instead, moment-to-moment happiness depended on the recent history of rewards and expectations. These expectations depended, for example, on whether the available options could lead to good or bad outcomes.

The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, investigated the relationship between happiness and reward, and the neural processes that lead to feelings that are central to our conscious experience, such as happiness. Before now, it was known that life events affect an individual’s happiness but not exactly how happy people will be from moment to moment as they make decisions and receive outcomes resulting from those decisions, something the new equation can predict.

Scientists believe that quantifying subjective states mathematically could help doctors better understand mood disorders, by seeing how self-reported feelings fluctuate in response to events like small wins and losses in a smartphone game. A better understanding of how mood is determined by life events and circumstances, and how that differs in people suffering from mood disorders, will hopefully lead to more effective treatments.

Research examining how and why happiness changes from moment to moment in individuals could also assist governments who deploy population measures of wellbeing to inform policy, by providing quantitative insight into what the collected information means. This is especially relevant to the UK following the launch of the National Wellbeing Programme in 2010 and subsequent annual reports by the Office for National Statistics on ‘Measuring National Wellbeing’.

For the study, 26 subjects completed a decision-making task in which their choices led to monetary gains and losses, and they were repeatedly asked to answer the question ‘how happy are you right now?’. The participant’s neural activity was also measured during the task using functional MRI and from these data, scientists built a computational model in which self-reported happiness was related to recent rewards and expectations. The model was then tested on 18,420 participants in the game ‘What makes me happy?’ in a smartphone app developed at UCL called 'The Great Brain Experiment'. Scientists were surprised to find that the same equation could be used to predict how happy subjects would be while they played the smartphone game, even though subjects could win only points and not money.

Lead author of the study, Dr Robb Rutledge (UCL Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging and the new Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing), said: “We expected to see that recent rewards would affect moment-to-moment happiness but were surprised to find just how important expectations are in determining happiness. In real-world situations, the rewards associated with life decisions such as starting a new job or getting married are often not realised for a long time, and our results suggest expectations related to these decisions, good and bad, have a big effect on happiness.

"Life is full of expectations - it would be difficult to make good decisions without knowing, for example, which restaurant you like better. It is often said that you will be happier if your expectations are lower. We find that there is some truth to this: lower expectations make it more likely that an outcome will exceed those expectations and have a positive impact on happiness. However, expectations also affect happiness even before we learn the outcome of a decision. If you have plans to meet a friend at your favourite restaurant, those positive expectations may increase your happiness as soon as you make the plan. The new equation captures these different effects of expectations and allows happiness to be predicted based on the combined effects of many past events.

"It’s great that the data from the large and varied population using The Great Brain Experiment smartphone app shows that the same happiness equation applies to thousands people worldwide playing our game, as with our much smaller laboratory-based experiments which demonstrate the tremendous value of this approach for studying human well-being on a large scale."

The team used functional MRI to demonstrate that neural signals during decisions and outcomes in the task in an area of the brain called the striatum can be used to predict changes in moment-to-moment happiness. The striatum has a lot of connections with dopamine neurons, and signals in this brain area are thought to depend at least partially on dopamine. These results raise the possibility that dopamine may play a role in determining happiness.

afro-dominicano:


Brain Scans Link Concern for Justice With Reason, Not Emotion

People who care about justice are swayed more by reason than emotion. That is the unexpected finding of new brain scan research from the University of Chicago department of Psychology and Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience.
Psychologists have found that some individuals react more strongly than others to situations that invoke a sense of justice — for example, seeing a person being treated unfairly, or with mercy. The new study used brain scans to analyze the thought processes of people with high “justice sensitivity.”
“We were interested to examine how individual differences about justice and fairness are represented in the brain to better understand the contribution of emotion and cognition in moral judgment,” explained lead author Jean Decety, the Irving B. Harris Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry.
Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain-scanning device, the team studied what happened in the participants’ brains as they judged videos depicting behavior that was morally good or bad. For example, they saw a person put money in a beggar’s cup or kick the beggar’s cup away. The participants were asked to rate on a scale how much they would blame or praise the actor seen in the video. People in the study also completed questionnaires that assessed cognitive and emotional empathy, as well as their justice sensitivity.
As expected, study participants who scored high on the justice sensitivity questionnaire assigned significantly more blame when they were evaluating scenes of harm, Decety said. They also registered more praise for scenes showing a person helping another individual.
But the brain imaging also yielded surprises. During the behavior-evaluation exercise, people with high justice sensitivity showed more activity than average participants in parts of the brain associated with higher-order cognition. Brain areas commonly linked with emotional processing were not affected.
The conclusion was clear, Decety said: “Individuals who are sensitive to justice and fairness do not seem to be emotionally driven. Rather, they are cognitively driven.”
According to Decety, one implication is that the search for justice and the moral missions of human rights organizations and others do not come primarily from sentimental motivations, as they are often portrayed. Instead, that drive may have more to do with sophisticated analysis and mental calculation.
Decety adds that evaluating good actions elicited relatively high activity in the region of the brain involved in decision-making, motivation and rewards. This finding suggests that perhaps individuals make judgments about behavior based on how they process the reward value of good actions as compared to bad actions.
“Our results provide some of the first evidence for the role of justice sensitivity in enhancing neural processing of moral information in specific components of the brain network involved in moral judgment,” Decety said.
UChicago Psychology doctoral student Keith Yoder is a co-author on the paper, which was published in the March 19 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience.

afro-dominicano:

Brain Scans Link Concern for Justice With Reason, Not Emotion

People who care about justice are swayed more by reason than emotion. That is the unexpected finding of new brain scan research from the University of Chicago department of Psychology and Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience.

Psychologists have found that some individuals react more strongly than others to situations that invoke a sense of justice — for example, seeing a person being treated unfairly, or with mercy. The new study used brain scans to analyze the thought processes of people with high “justice sensitivity.”

“We were interested to examine how individual differences about justice and fairness are represented in the brain to better understand the contribution of emotion and cognition in moral judgment,” explained lead author Jean Decety, the Irving B. Harris Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry.

Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain-scanning device, the team studied what happened in the participants’ brains as they judged videos depicting behavior that was morally good or bad. For example, they saw a person put money in a beggar’s cup or kick the beggar’s cup away. The participants were asked to rate on a scale how much they would blame or praise the actor seen in the video. People in the study also completed questionnaires that assessed cognitive and emotional empathy, as well as their justice sensitivity.

As expected, study participants who scored high on the justice sensitivity questionnaire assigned significantly more blame when they were evaluating scenes of harm, Decety said. They also registered more praise for scenes showing a person helping another individual.

But the brain imaging also yielded surprises. During the behavior-evaluation exercise, people with high justice sensitivity showed more activity than average participants in parts of the brain associated with higher-order cognition. Brain areas commonly linked with emotional processing were not affected.

The conclusion was clear, Decety said: “Individuals who are sensitive to justice and fairness do not seem to be emotionally driven. Rather, they are cognitively driven.”

According to Decety, one implication is that the search for justice and the moral missions of human rights organizations and others do not come primarily from sentimental motivations, as they are often portrayed. Instead, that drive may have more to do with sophisticated analysis and mental calculation.

Decety adds that evaluating good actions elicited relatively high activity in the region of the brain involved in decision-making, motivation and rewards. This finding suggests that perhaps individuals make judgments about behavior based on how they process the reward value of good actions as compared to bad actions.

“Our results provide some of the first evidence for the role of justice sensitivity in enhancing neural processing of moral information in specific components of the brain network involved in moral judgment,” Decety said.

UChicago Psychology doctoral student Keith Yoder is a co-author on the paper, which was published in the March 19 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience.

(via cognitivedissonance)

Amsterdam Gay Pride boat parade.

fotojournalismus:

Day 23: Israel strikes on another UN school serving as a refugee shelter & crowded market in Shejaiya during ceasefire as Gaza death toll passes 1,350 | July 30, 2014

Faiza Al-Tanboura had not spoken for 21 days since a missile strike destroyed her home. In the early hours of the morning she found her voice: “The children. Don’t let them kill the children,” she shouted as she ran out into the playground of a UN school under Israeli tank fire.

Three thousand people have squashed into Jabaliya Elementary Girls’ School since the Israeli military warned people to leave their homes and neighbourhoods or risk death under intense bombardment. Classroom Number 1, just inside the school’s entrance, had become home to about 40, mostly women and children.

The first shell came just after the early morning call to prayer, when most of those taking shelter in a United Nations school in Jabaliya refugee camp were asleep, crammed into classrooms with what few possessions they had managed to snatch when they fled their homes. Minutes later, a second shell slammed through the roof of the two-storey school.

At least 15 people, mostly children and women, died when the school in Jabaliya refugee camp was hit by five shells during a night of relentless bombardment across Gaza. More than 100 people were injured.

Pierre Krähenbühl, commissioner-general of the UN agency for Palestinian refugees, UNRWA, said the shelling of the school was a “serious violation of international law by Israeli forces”.

He said: “Last night, children were killed as they slept next to their parents on the floor of a classroom in a UN-designated shelter in Gaza. Children killed in their sleep; this is an affront to all of us, a source of universal shame. Today the world stands disgraced.”

Christopher Gunness, the UNRWA’s spokesman, said “precise location of the school was communicated to Israeli army 17 times.” 

The attack on the school was the sixth time that UNRWA premises have been hit since the Israeli assault on Gaza began more than three weeks ago, the UN said.

In the evening, after Israel had declared a four hour humanitarian ceasefire, came another attack, on a busy market in Shejaiyah, between Gaza City and the Israeli border. At least 15 people were killed, including Rami Rayan, a Palestinian journalist wearing a press vest, and another 200 people wounded. 

At least 110 people were killed across Gaza on Wednesday, July 30, bringing the total Palestinian death toll to more than 1,350.

Photos: 

1. People inspect the damage outside the school. (Wissam Nassar for The New York Times)

2. A Palestinian child, wounded in an Israeli strike in a UN school, receives treatment at Kamal Edwan hospital. (Mohammed Abed/AFP/Getty Images)

3. Palestinians who lost relatives in an Israeli strike in a UN school in Jabalia refugee camp in the northern Gaza Strip, mourn outside the Kamal Edwan hospital in Beit Lahia where victims from the attack were brought. (Mahmud Hams/AFP/Getty Images)

4. A Palestinian man inspects the damage at a UN school at the Jabalia refugee camp. (Mahmud Hams/AFP/Getty Images)

5. A Palestinians boy looks at the sky after hearing a fighter jet releasing flares, as he stands by a donkey killed by an Israeli strike earlier, at and around the adjacent Abu Hussein U.N. school, seen in background, in Jebaliya refugee camp. (Lefteris Pitarakis/AP)

6. A Palestinian man grieves for relatives who were killed in an Israeli airstrike at a U.N. school in the Jabaliya refugee camp, at the Kamal Adwan hospital in Beit Lahiya. (Khalil Hamra/AP)

7. A Palestinian man pictured through a damaged classroom carries a boy as he walks at a United Nations-run school sheltering Palestinians displaced by an Israeli ground offensive. (Suhaib Salem/Reuters)

8. Palestinians mourn the death of a relative, who died when a UN school used as a shelter for internally displace people came under Israeli shelling in the Kamal Adwan hospital in Beit Lahia. (Oliver Weiken/EPA)

9. Palestinians collect human remains from a classroom inside a UN school in the Jabalia refugee camp. (Marco Longari/AFP/Getty Images)

10. Relatives carry the body of a child killed during the shelling of the school. (Sergey Ponomarev for The New York Times)

(Sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)

Social origins of intelligence in the brain

neurosciencestuff:

By studying the injuries and aptitudes of Vietnam War veterans who suffered penetrating head wounds during the war, scientists are tackling — and beginning to answer — longstanding questions about how the brain works.

image

The researchers found that brain regions that contribute to optimal social…

(Source: news.illinois.edu)

refreshinglyclassic:

burningoleander:

midnight-emotive:

'if lesbians use dildos why don't they just have sex with a man?'

image

'if straight men like fucking women in the ass why don't they just fuck men?'

Finally, a brilliant response to a dumb question.

(via diaryofaclosetlesbian)

classytragedy:

maleeshda3wa:

yayasmeen:

I think my selfie problem is getting out of hand..

This deserves at least a thousand notes !!

This is beautiful

(via dr-if-i-ever-graduate)

nasa-ismy-truelove:

trigonometry-is-my-bitch:

Scientists from MIT Developed a Trillion frames per second slow motion camera that can show light moving through a bottle. Ramesh Raskar presents femto-photography - For comparison, the imaging of a bullet captured at this many frames per second would last a year as explained in thepresentation by Professor Ramesh Raskar of MIT.
[video]
^ what you have witnessed above is light travelling in slow motion.

OOOOOOOOOH MY GOD

nasa-ismy-truelove:

trigonometry-is-my-bitch:

Scientists from MIT Developed a Trillion frames per second slow motion camera that can show light moving through a bottle. Ramesh Raskar presents femto-photography - For comparison, the imaging of a bullet captured at this many frames per second would last a year as explained in thepresentation by Professor Ramesh Raskar of MIT.

[video]

^ what you have witnessed above is light travelling in slow motion.

OOOOOOOOOH MY GOD

(via mindblowingscience)

fotojournalismus:

A Palestinian vendor plays with balloons at the market in the Jabaliya refugee camp, northern Gaza Strip on July 27, 2014. During normal times, families in Gaza would be busy now with preparations for Eid al-Fitr, the three-day holiday marking the end of the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan. Traditionally, children get new clothes, shoes and haircuts, and families visit each other. (Lefteris Pitarakis/AP)

fotojournalismus:

A Palestinian vendor plays with balloons at the market in the Jabaliya refugee camp, northern Gaza Strip on July 27, 2014. During normal times, families in Gaza would be busy now with preparations for Eid al-Fitr, the three-day holiday marking the end of the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan. Traditionally, children get new clothes, shoes and haircuts, and families visit each other. (Lefteris Pitarakis/AP)

neurosciencenews:

Learning the Smell of Fear
Read the full article Learning the Smell of Fear at NeuroscienceNews.com.
Babies can learn what to fear in the first days of life just by smelling the odor of their distressed mothers, new research suggests. And not just “natural” fears: If a mother experienced something before pregnancy that made her fear something specific, her baby will quickly learn to fear it too — through the odor she gives off when she feels fear.
The research is in PNAS. (full access paywall)
Research: “Intergenerational transmission of emotional trauma through amygdala-dependent mother-to-infant transfer of specific fear” by Jacek Debiec and Regina Marie Sullivan in PNAS. doi:10.1073/pnas.1316740111
Image: Even when just the odor of the frightened mother was piped in to a chamber where baby rats were exposed to peppermint smell, the babies developed a fear of the same smell, and their blood cortisol levels rose when they smelled it. Credit University of Michigan.

neurosciencenews:

Learning the Smell of Fear

Read the full article Learning the Smell of Fear at NeuroscienceNews.com.

Babies can learn what to fear in the first days of life just by smelling the odor of their distressed mothers, new research suggests. And not just “natural” fears: If a mother experienced something before pregnancy that made her fear something specific, her baby will quickly learn to fear it too — through the odor she gives off when she feels fear.

The research is in PNAS. (full access paywall)

Research: “Intergenerational transmission of emotional trauma through amygdala-dependent mother-to-infant transfer of specific fear” by Jacek Debiec and Regina Marie Sullivan in PNAS. doi:10.1073/pnas.1316740111

Image: Even when just the odor of the frightened mother was piped in to a chamber where baby rats were exposed to peppermint smell, the babies developed a fear of the same smell, and their blood cortisol levels rose when they smelled it. Credit University of Michigan.

humansofnewyork:

Seen in Jamaica, Queens.

Happy Eid Mubarak!

humansofnewyork:

Seen in Jamaica, Queens.

Happy Eid Mubarak!